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Notice & Consent for people relies on clear communication. 

Decentralized identity relies on legal semantics to express technical semantics that are mirrored to provide data governance that people expect.  Data governance referring explicitly to the transborder use of personal information and personal identifiers.

As there are no standardized legal semantics for Digital identity and personal Transborder data management presents a challenge.  This work aims to develop a Unified Notice Control Language, that utilizes the OCA and the W3C  Data Control Vocabulary ( mapped legal ontology) to harmonize decentralized legal semantics, utilizing the  International Kantara Notice & Consent Receipt specifications (now in WD2 ISO 27560) and ISO 27984. Online Privacy Notice and Consent standard. 

Notice & Consent Task Force 

Project owner:

Mark Lizar Salvatore D'Agostino

Team members:

Ken Adler




Decentralized Data Governance for Data subject’s (data) rights

  1. A key challenge, which is addressed with an International standards, is the lack of semantic harmonization for personal data control  which provides security for the portability and control of private information and is a required for people to be able to independently consent and control personal information.  This challenge, which was originally championed by  the Open Notice Initiative's Presentation and Paper @ the W3C DoNotTrack Conference in Berkeley California. 'Opening Up the Online Infrastructure' called for collaboration on the semantic standards to be developed. Ultimately realizing that intention data governance standards were needed, and international data governance policy was required to govern between jurisdictions, technical domains, and identity management systems.  It was also abundantly clear, the only legal, and human centric framework for this Internationally, is Notice & Consent.  Notice and Consent, after an exhaustive research campaign, Notice, and semantics are the only consistent legal, technical and socially required component, for all contexts dealing with personal information. 
  2.  This turned into a Kantara Specification effort in 2014 and now, last year, ISO voted to fast track this to a standard 27560, to be used with ISO 29184 to address what was know by the  phrased of the Biggest Lie on the Internet, was a focus of a movie Terms and Condition's May Apply. With an international governance rule set, people can use independently of Terms and Conditions. 
  3. With the success of this work as an international standard this Task Force aims to collaborate to support an International data governance authority framework as an open resource for master data control transparency over personal information (with standardized notice).

Specification Outline

  1. Overview of (OPN) Data Governance Authority Architecture:
    1. Intro
      1. This data governance authority architecture provides the international legal roles for  
    2. Identity & Data Governance Legally Specified Actors /Stakeholders
      1. Policy Controller, Privacy (Data) Controller, Registration Operator Governance Authority, DGA - Registrar 
    3. Privacy Risk Assurance Levels 1-4
      1. Policy Controller, Privacy Controller, Data/Identity Governance Authority Operator (DGAO)
        1. Controller: Tier  0 Risk Assurance - Not Registered 
        2. Policy Controller ( or just Controller) - Tier 1 Assurance - Self Asserted Binding  -No Privacy Risk Assurance - Discoverable
        3. Privacy Controller (or  Data Controller) - Tier 2 Assurance - Signed Binding for Legal Compliance - Mitigated Risk Assurance
        4. Data Governance Authority Operator - Tier 3 - Assurance - High Risk Assurance 
        5. Registrar - Tier 4 - Registrar Infrastructure - 
          1. Low Risk Personal Data Processing - 
            1. only personal information of Controller, and Company Operators
  2. Privacy Controller Credential Specification
    1. Overview:  a Privacy Controller Credential is comprised of a bound relationship identifiers for accountability and transparency: This enables data supply chain transparency
      1. Accountable Person + Legal Entity Identifier
        1. Legal Status of Accountable person and Legal Entity 
        2. Wether the Accountable person is employed by Legal Entity, or 3rd Party 
          1. if 3rd Party - Privacy Controller Credential of 3rd party is required
      2. Conditions of access and use:
        1. the accountable person info should be masked unless required (not published as is required in some jurisdictions) 
  3. Use Case(s) 
    1. Digital Immunisation Passport
    2. Legal Justifications for processing
      1. Surveillance of identifiers  
      2. Holder, Verifier & Issuer 

Unified Notice Control Language for Semantic Harmonization 


Uses the definitions and terms specified in the ISO 29100 framework, Consent Receipt v1.2, for specifying key roles for data control, transparency and accountability.  This international framework is the basis for extending semantic data governance to decentralized data economy.  In this economy, the Privacy Controller Credential extended the Privacy Controller Public Profile for verified claims, decentralized identifiers, and Self Soverign applications.  For this purpose, this specification is used to provide the best practices for the data controller to generate a verifiable credential, the considerations in using this as a  legal credential for standardized data processing.  

The Privacy Controller, the accountable, authorizing stakeholder for data processing is the key audience for this specification and language. 

Key Problem> 

At this time, a high risk, high sensitivity data processing activity, has the responsibility to be transparent over the legal entities responsible for processing personal data, the beneficiaries of the data processing activity, in addition to any othe processors.  This includes partners and data processing service providers, like Google or identity management service provider.  

This privacy controller profile, printed out in long form would  have multiple legal entities and Privacy Controller Credentials required, this would include all of their mailing addresses (by law) and , public contact point/addresses, and the details of any jurisdictional representative for privacy and data protection.

This specification, aims to tease out the language used for specifying  these elements, which are legally required to be Public so that they can be represented with a single distributed identifier to simplify each  DDE interaction. 

Privacy Risk Assurance ;

  • refers to trustworthy transparency 
    • e.g does this organization use of standardized legal semantics for notice and consent to ease understanding

Requirements Privacy Controller Credential Specification (in Open Consent Groups' OPN Architecture)

Providence  chain starts with the person who is accountable bound to a legal entity. 

Legal Entity Accountability Levels according to Tiers of Privacy Risk

Tier 0 - No-Risk Indicated :  Self Asserted Binding  with a privacy policy - providing minimum Privacy Risk Assurance (trustworthy Transparency)

  • A non registered Broadcast listing 

Tier 1 - Policy Controller - Low Risk - doesn't process personal data electronically, does not collect or process personal information, and for any personal identifier, this is minimized and secure, has internal security for data of employee's

Tier 2 -  Privacy (data) Controller - Does process personal data for commercial benefit and use

Tier 3 - Very High Risk - invisible public surveillance, surveillance of children /vulnerable people etc   Beneficial owners (required) 

Tier 4 - Controller Operator - Provides Registration services for Privacy Controller Credentials, Mitigates Privacy Risk with codes of conduct and certifications that accredit codes of practice.  Controller can then register to these codes of conduct and practice 

Use's of The PCC Credential  -  a single identifier for a Privacy Controller, which links to all LEI's for beneficial ownership. 

  • Simplify Transparency 
  • Improve performance 
  • Sign Receipts to create tokens
  • Provides 
    • Privacy - Transparency over legal entities, accountable people and beneficial - 
    • Legal Entity Identifier Purpose and Sources
      • to identify the legal entity of the privacy controller 
      • beneficial owner of the legal entity 
  • Accountable Person Role
    • to identify the accountable person / role that is bound to the legal entity identifier (aka) organization. 
      • could be an employee
      • owner / director / officer 
      • data proaction officer 
      • 3rd. Party Company Representative 
        • accountable role - (for another 3rd Party) acting representative 
  • Privacy Controller 
    • under what authority 
    • under what legal justification 

ISO 29100 Privacy Stakeholders

Privacy Stakeholders

ISO Definition

Regulator / 

PII Principal

PII Controller

PII Processor

3rd Party

Privacy Controller Credential Roles 

Data Governance Authority Operator Role  Certification Providers on Regulator Approved Codes of Conduct  - very limited PII - data controller personal information and a linked reference to a data subjects identifier -

Data Governance Registrar`


StakeholderPrivacy Controller Credential : Creating Credentials for a use CaseDescription 




Gov ToiP Role

UseCase Example 


Actors Privacy Stakeholders 

  • controller, processor, subject, 3rd Parties

Provides the schema - hospital issuer Privacy Controller 

Person - Requesting Information from - patient/traveller holderData Subject 

3rd Party - border control Verifier Data Processor / 3rd Party  

  • looking to make a process for what Legal Privacy Stakeholder has the Credential Role
    • Steps to assign Stakeholder Roles
      • Test for checking if its a processors or a 3rd party? 

Legal Semantic Element 

semantic description

functional usage

fields Required



controller address registered

controller address (mailing)

controller contactextend consent termination for a control point

Delegated Role :



PII Principal

PII Controller

PII Processor

3rd Party


References for use for creating a Unified (generic) Data Control Vocabulary for OCA




Resource Status

ISO 29100

Information technology — Security techniques — Privacy framework

ISO/IEC 29100:2011 provides a privacy framework which

  • specifies a common privacy terminology;
  • defines the actors and their roles in processing personally identifiable information (PII);
  • describes privacy safeguarding considerations; and
  • provides references to known privacy principles for information technology.
Status - Is publicly available -
ISO/IEC 29184:2020Online privacy notice and consent
(just published - not available to public - we are working on publishing a report/appendix for use with this group )
W3C DPV  0.01Data Privacy Vocabulary
  • legal ontology for technically breaking down and mapping legal ontology to a data legal ontology - 
  • the Notice +  CR V1.2 and W3C DPV, also use a common set of purpose categories. and the Kantara CR v1.1 for purpose specification
  • (note shared by initial FIHR approach - now much more evolved) 

Topic List

Topic Title 


Mapping Governance Matching with ToiP Governance 


Reference Implementations


Human Colossus 



OPN: Open Notice  (+ Consent) Receipt Schema: Starters Guide to Unified Data Control Schema

Lizar, M. & Pandit, H.J., OPN: Open Notice Receipt Schema, 14th International Conference on Semantic Systems (SEMANTiCS 2019), Karlsruhe, Germany, 2019 [Published [accessed July 1, 2020]

Field Name

Field Label




Schema Version



The version of specification used to which the receipt conforms. To refer to this version of the specification, the string "v1" or the IRI "" should be used.


OPN Privacy Profile URI



Link to the controller's profile in the OPN registry. 


Type of Notice Receipt

Notice Receipt


Label Notice Receipt 


Receipt ID



A unique number for each Notice Receipt. SHOULD use UUID-4 [RFC 4122].





Date and time of when the notice was generated and provided. The JSON value MUST be expressed as the number of seconds since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 GMT (Unix epoch).


Signing Key



The Controller’s profile public key. Used to sign notice icons, receipts and policies for higher assurance.





Language in which the consent was obtained. MUST use ISO 639-1:2002 [ISO 639] if this field is used. Default is 'EN'.


Controller Identity



The identity (legal name) of the controller.


Legal Jurisdiction



The jurisdiction(s) applicable to this notice


Controller Contact



Contact name of the Controller. Contact could be a telephone number or an email address or a twitter handle.


Link to Notice



Link to the notice the receipt is for 


Link to Policy



Link to the policies relevant to this notice e.g. privacy policy active at the time notice was provided





Method of notice  presentation, sign, website pop-up etc


Receipt Type

The human understandable label for a record or receipt for data processing.  This is used to extend the schema with  profile for the type of legal processing - and is Used to identify data privacy rights and controls 

OCA schema specification:

  • No labels